Erscheinungsdatum: 26.10.2004, Medium: Taschenbuch, Einband: Kartoniert / Broschiert, Titel: Canada and the Gold Standard, Titelzusatz: Balance of Payments Adjustment Under Fixed Exchange Rates, 1871 1913, Autor: Dick, Trevor J. O. // Floyd, John E. // Trevor J. O., Dick, Verlag: Cambridge University Press, Sprache: Englisch, Schlagworte: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS // Money & Monetary Policy, Rubrik: Volkswirtschaft, Seiten: 256, Informationen: Paperback, Gewicht: 399 gr, Verkäufer: averdo
A currency crisis, which is also called a balance-of-payments crisis, occurs when the value of a currency changes quickly, undermining its ability to serve as a medium of exchange or a store of value. It is a type of financial crisis and is often associated with a real economic crisis. Currency crises can be especially destructive to small open economies or bigger, but not sufficiently stable ones. Governments often take on the role of fending off such attacks by satisfying the excess demand for a given currency using the country's own currency reserves or its foreign reserves (usually in euros, US dollars or UK pounds). Currency crises are accompanied with speculative attack on the currency, and at the time of attack, the currency is under the fixed exchange rate regime. Recessions attributed to currency crises include the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis and the Argentine economic crisis (1999-2002).
The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) is set up to operate as Public Private Partnership and directed at providing accessible, affordable and qualitative healthcare for all Nigerians. The Nigerian health insurance industry is faced with the challenge of developing a sustainable fees structure owing to serious data deficits pervading the Nigerian healthcare system and unreliable critical health statistics. Using the capitation payment mechanism the health care provider assumes that for a given insured population, the provider will cover all health care services for a fixed payment per member per month. However, in this arrangement, payments assumed equal risk level for all subscribers and this may encourage risk selection. This objective of this research project is to explore the development of risk-adjusted models for the Nigeria National Health Insurance Scheme. The study relied on healthcare cost of various diagnoses based on international classification of diseases and information on enrollment to facilities with regards to enrollees characteristics.
The mortgage system has been used for many years in many countries of the world. Although the system has undergone many changes over the passing years, the basics remain the same. So, it can be thought that the earlier systems form the basis of today's mortgage system even though it represents some differences in practice among the countries. However, this system is very new for Turkish financial market as compared with developed countries. The aim of this study is estimating the default and prepayment risk of mortgage contract and pricing the contract in emerging markets like Turkey. In this study, a classical option pricing technique based on Cox, Ingersoll and Ross is used in order to evaluate Turkish fixed-rate mortgages. The model evaluates the embedded options, namely prepayment and default options, and the future payments which corresponds to the mortgage monthly payments. Another aim of this study is the pricing of mortgage insurance policy which has not been used yet in Turkish mortgage market but thought as potential derivative in this market. Therefore, the model used in the study also provides values for mortgage insurance policy.
The 1996 Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act introduced fixed payments which unlike previous payment programs are designed to be decoupled from production decisions. In general, economists believe that fixed payments, which account for one-third of total United States government payments to farmers, are an efficient way to transfer income to targeted recipients. Further, fixed payments are believed to generate only minimal distortions in resource allocation decisions. This study, based on data from a national survey of farm households, examines how farm households allocate the proceeds from a fixed payment. In addition, it examines what factors best explain how farm households indicate that they would allocate the hypothetical payment. Results indicate that the extent to which fixed payments can be considered decoupled depends on a variety of factors that describe the farm business, operator, and household.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Royalties are usage-based payments made by one party (the "licensee") to another (the "licensor") for ongoing use of an asset, sometimes an intellectual property (IP) right. Royalties are typically a percentage of gross or net sales derived from use of an asset or a fixed price per unit sold of an item. But there are also other modes and metrics of compensation. A royalty interest is the right to collect a stream of future royalty payments, often used in the oil industry and music industry to describe a percentage ownership of future production or revenues from a given leasehold, which may be divested from the original owner of the asset.